Primary Sources

Cassius Dio, Historiae Romanae 67.8.2Lightmatter_colosseum
Julius Obsequens, De Prodigiis
Longinus, De Sublimitate 44.5
Lucian, Prometheus es in verbis 4
Elder Seneca, Controversiae
Pliny, Historia Naturalis 7.16-34
Plutarch, De Curiositate 10/Moralia 520C
Statius, Silvae 1.6.57-64
Suetonius, De Vita Caesarum (Aug. 43; Dom. 4)
Tacitus, Annales 15.34

 Secondary Sources

Zotero Group: Exploiting Humans as Spectacle in Antiquity – Please visit this page and consider joining!

human-freaks-banner1) Barton, Carlin. The sorrows of the ancient Romans: the gladiator and the monster. Princeton, N.J.:Princeton University Press, 1993.
2) Bogden, R. Freak show: presenting human oddities for amusement and profit. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.
3) Brunet, S. “Female and Dwarf Gladiators,” Mouseion Volume 3.4 (2004)  pp. 145-71.
4) — “Dwarf Athletes in the Roman Empire.” AHB 17 (2003) 17-32
5) Fiedler, L. A. Freaks: myths and images of the secret self. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978.

6) Garland, R. The eye of the beholder: deformity and disability in the Graeco-Roman world. London: G.Duckworth, 1995.
7) Garland-Thompson, R. Staring: How we look. Oxford University Press, 2009.
8) Hauser et al. “Self-Recognition in Primates: Phylogeny and the Salience of Species-Typical Features”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , Vol. 92, No. 23 (Nov. 7, 1995), pp. 10811-10814
9) Howard, G. E. “Social Psychology of the Spectator” American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 18, No. 1(Jul., 1912), pp. 33-50.
10) Keltner, D. & J. Haidt. “Approaching awe, a moral, spiritual, and aesthetic emotion.” Cognition &Emotion. Volume 17:2 (2003) pp. 297-314.
11) Konecni, V. I. “The Aesthetic Trinity: Awe, Being Moved, Thrills”. Bulletin of Psychology and the Arts.Volume 5:2 (2005) pp. 27-44.
12) Masnari et al. “Self- and parent-perceived stigmatisation in children and adolescents with congenital or acquired facial differences”. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2012 Dec;65(12):1664-70
13) Thompson, R.G. Freakery : cultural spectacles of the extraordinary body. New York: New YorkUniversity Press, 1996.
14) Trentin, L. Deformity in the Roman Imperial Court. Greece & Rome Volume 58: 2 (October 2011), pp 195-208
15) Welsford, E. The fool: his social and literary history. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1961.

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