Bibliography

Primary Sources

Cassius Dio, Historiae Romanae 67.8.2Lightmatter_colosseum
Julius Obsequens, De Prodigiis
Longinus, De Sublimitate 44.5
Lucian, Prometheus es in verbis 4
Elder Seneca, Controversiae
Pliny, Historia Naturalis 7.16-34
Plutarch, De Curiositate 10/Moralia 520C
Statius, Silvae 1.6.57-64
Suetonius, De Vita Caesarum (Aug. 43; Dom. 4)
Tacitus, Annales 15.34

 Secondary Sources

Zotero Group: Exploiting Humans as Spectacle in Antiquity – Please visit this page and consider joining!

human-freaks-banner1) Barton, Carlin. The sorrows of the ancient Romans: the gladiator and the monster. Princeton, N.J.:Princeton University Press, 1993.
2) Bogden, R. Freak show: presenting human oddities for amusement and profit. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.
3) Brunet, S. “Female and Dwarf Gladiators,” Mouseion Volume 3.4 (2004)  pp. 145-71.
4) — “Dwarf Athletes in the Roman Empire.” AHB 17 (2003) 17-32
5) Fiedler, L. A. Freaks: myths and images of the secret self. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978.

6) Garland, R. The eye of the beholder: deformity and disability in the Graeco-Roman world. London: G.Duckworth, 1995.
7) Garland-Thompson, R. Staring: How we look. Oxford University Press, 2009.
8) Hauser et al. “Self-Recognition in Primates: Phylogeny and the Salience of Species-Typical Features”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , Vol. 92, No. 23 (Nov. 7, 1995), pp. 10811-10814
9) Howard, G. E. “Social Psychology of the Spectator” American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 18, No. 1(Jul., 1912), pp. 33-50.
10) Keltner, D. & J. Haidt. “Approaching awe, a moral, spiritual, and aesthetic emotion.” Cognition &Emotion. Volume 17:2 (2003) pp. 297-314.
11) Konecni, V. I. “The Aesthetic Trinity: Awe, Being Moved, Thrills”. Bulletin of Psychology and the Arts.Volume 5:2 (2005) pp. 27-44.
12) Masnari et al. “Self- and parent-perceived stigmatisation in children and adolescents with congenital or acquired facial differences”. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2012 Dec;65(12):1664-70
13) Thompson, R.G. Freakery : cultural spectacles of the extraordinary body. New York: New YorkUniversity Press, 1996.
14) Trentin, L. Deformity in the Roman Imperial Court. Greece & Rome Volume 58: 2 (October 2011), pp 195-208
15) Welsford, E. The fool: his social and literary history. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1961.

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Image Citations

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:TheatreofMarcellus.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7/Amazing_Carny%2C_Her_Naked_Tattooed_Body.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/68/Joseph_Carey_Merrick_.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bearded_lady.JPG

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bertholde_of_Bertagnona,_dwarf.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/50/LocationRoma.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:India_-_Varanasi_dark_hair_boy_-_2638.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/26/Spectacle_Zoo_Shanghai.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ota_Benga_at_Bronx_Zoo.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/Dog_Faced_Boy.png

http://www.flickr.com/photos/mharrsch/8485593501/

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/e/e3/Schlitzie.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Map_of_downtown_Rome_during_the_Roman_Empire_large.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f2/Slave_sale_Charleston_South_Carolina.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Slave_Market-Atlanta_Georgia_1864.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jean-L%C3%A9on_G%C3%A9r%C3%B4me_-_Slave_Market_in_Rome_-_WGA8652.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jean-L%C3%A9on_G%C3%A9r%C3%B4me_-_A_Roman_Slave_Market_-_Walters_37885.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Francisco_de_Goya_y_Lucientes_-_A_Lunatic_behind_Bars_-_WGA10170.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9a/Horti_Sallustiani_incisione.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:British_-_The_Judde_Memorial_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alice_Liddell_as_%27The_Begger_Child%27.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Alicebeggar.png

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Robert_Wadlow_1928.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PSM_V31_D330_Amanar_a_grecian_giant.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mandvi_Beach2.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:D%C3%A9part_de_la_Harpie.jpeg

http://sideshows.wikia.com/wiki/File:Billdurks.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lightmatter_colosseum.jpg

http://www.flickr.com/photos/igun_photos/4199533183/sizes/l/in/photostream/

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:FreakShowConeyIsland.jpg

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